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Book , Online - Google Books. Online marketing has become a useful tool to entrepreneurs or small business owners as well as corporations. Whereas social media marketing is conducted through social networks i. YouTube is popular for video marketing, which is also considered as part of social media marketing since it is becoming a social networking site.
YouTube is an excellent tool to market your products and services to your target audience. Organizational brand A brand is a sign, symbol, logo, term that a producer or group of producers put on their product or group of products in order to ensure differentiation from other competitive products in the market.
Effectiveness of Social Media Networks as a Strategic Tool for Organizational Marketing Management
Branding is a process that is used by the businesses to utilize marketing strategies to enhance their product or service image so that it is more readily recollected by the customer [ 23 ]. In order for a brand to be established for the long run, there are constants that must be followed: A brand must be simple: Popular brands today have simple and easy to remember logos, the reason backing this concept it that consumers like to associate themselves with simple things and forget the complex things. A brand should be different: A brand should have its own level of uniqueness in order for it to be able to stand out from similar products or competition in the market, the individuality of the brand make it easy for consumers to seek out the product to use again.
A brand should be safe: Research should be carried out by the marketers when seeking a logo or a symbol for the brand in order to choose appropriately without offending a particular culture. This is used mainly for international organizations [ 25 ]. A strong brand is a promise or bond with customers and in return for their loyalty, customers expect the firm to satisfy their needs better than any other competitors.
Brands will always be important given their fundamental purpose to identify and differentiate products and services.
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People are loyal to brands that satisfy their expectations and deliver on its brand promise. The predictably good performance of a strong brand is something that consumer will always value.
Building a corporate brand requires a lot of planning and patience because your future profit and increase in market share depend on it. Brand equity refers to the intangible value that occurs to a company as a result of its successful efforts to establish a strong brand, it exist as a function of consumer choice in the market place. Competitive tools Competitive differentiation is a tactic used by organizations to help set their products or services apart from that of the competitors.
Differentiation can be achieved through packaging, marketing campaigns and after-market product support. Startup companies often develop products or services in niche markets in order to competitively differentiate themselves around a specific consumer need. A positioning statement can provide a basis for competitive differentiation, defining specific advantages a particular offering provides [ 21 ]. Brand campaigning Specific activities designed to promote a product, service or business. A marketing campaign is a coordinated series of steps that can include promotion of a product through different mediums television, radio, print, online using a variety of different types of advertisements.
Organizational performance According to Richard [ 12 - 14 ] organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: i financial performance which includes; profits, return on assets, return on investment, etc. The balance scorecard Firstly it is important to note that the balance scorecard apart from being a means of measurement for organizations, it also acts a means of management which monitors the performance of all or part of an organization, towards strategic or operational goals.
It uses financial and non-financial performance measures to highlight areas where the organization is failing to do what is required or was expected. In order for it to be useful it has to have the right measures and targets. Balanced scorecard has also been selected by the editors of Harvard Business Review as one of the most influential business ideas of the past seventy five years. The balance scorecard is a hybrid approach that considers both financial and non-financial measures.
According to Kaplan and Norton the balanced scorecard suggests that organizations be viewed from four perspectives, and to develop metrics, collect data and analyze it relative to each of these four perspectives: The learning and growth perspective: This perspective includes employee training and corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. People being the only repertory of knowledge are the main resource.
The business process perspective: This perspective refers to internal business processes. Due to the perspective based metrics, managers know how well their business is running and if customers are getting maximum satisfaction from their goods and services. The customer perspective: There is increasing realization by organizations concerning the importance of consumer satisfaction; if consumers are not satisfied there can move to the competition who will eventually attend to their needs. If an organization performs poorly in this area it is an indicator of future decline no matter the financial status.
The financial perspective: One of the highest priorities is the timely and accurate funding of financial data and manages are tasked to do what is necessary to provide it. Kaplan and Norton do not disregard the traditional need for financial data. Strategic performance measurement system Strategic performance measurement system can take many forms but its distinctive feature is that they are designed specially to provide information on both financial and non-financial measures which covers different perspectives which when combined provides a way of translating to strategy into performance measures [ 29 ].
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Examples include performance pyramids and hierarchies. In addition, evidence shows that non-financial performance indicators can be best combined with financial performance indicators to come up with the best organizational performance measurements model in a competitive environment in which organizations operate [ 29 ]. The production of welfare framework pow This framework is measured using three indicators: The first indicator is the outcome of the project i.
The second indicator focuses on invested financial, material and human resources to pursue organizational objective for measurement against what has been achieved. The third is the perception success and achievement of the organization and people within the organization and perceived success of the organization by stakeholders. This theory states that the development of communication media from its early days of print to recent days of electronic communication was due to the rise of modern societies. It takes into consideration technological advancements, changes in income and culture of people from the primitive to the modernity stage as well as education and social economic variables.
The theory further argues that in order to fully understand the nature of modern societies we must first look into communication media and their impact.
Thompson gave an instance of print media and how it started to spread during the early days of its development due to factors such as urbanization, industrial development, technological advancement, and increased number of elites by s [ 34 ]. The focal contention is that the way of social media is an impression of modernizing advancement methodologies or stages that a general public would have arrived at. In perspective of this hypothesis, social networking is an aftereffect of modernizing ICT that impacts association and individual correspondence, it is a consequence of the relationship between innovative headway and changing worldwide society of correspondence and relating past national state limits.
The theory is subject to criticism based on the fact that in reality there are circumstances under which the advancement of media cannot be controlled by level of innovation alone but instead exchange of numerous variables, for example, innovative exchange starting with one nation then onto the next, steady government arrangements on media and worldwide financial exchanges. The theory borrows from the work of scholars on resource mobilization theory such as Jenkins [ 35 ] which states that resources time, money, organizational skills, and certain social or political opportunities are very central toward success in any social movements.
It is argued that these scarce resources can be mobilized through social media, something which would not have otherwise happened. An example is the Arab spring social movement in Egypt and Tunisia where social media was used to mobilize people for demonstrations or to seek political support from individuals or organizations, social media proved resourceful in mobilizing people and getting them to participate in anti-government movements in Egypt [ 27 ]. At its inception, resource mobilization theory was unlike earlier theories of collective action in its treatment of social movements as normal, rational, institutionally rooted activities that are structured and patterned, thus allowing for analysis in terms of organizational dynamics [ 35 ].
Discussion Research of social media is still at its infant stage due to the fact that it is a recent phenomenon but there is an amount of interest amongst practitioners and researchers in studying the issues related to social media and social media marketing.
Networks and national security : dynamics, effectiveness and organisation
Hensel et al. They also stated that social media has made it possible for one individual to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other individuals and therefore amplifying word of mouth. There was a demonstration regarding the greater publicity effectiveness of social media and underlying factors behind it and also the effects of perceived writer — brand relationship, effects of writer credibility and publicity effectiveness, purchase intentions and social interactions are the variables taken into consideration when comparing social media advertising to traditional media.
It was established that social media blogs generated higher brand attitudes and purchase intentions due to the social interaction between the readers and the blogger, the readers socialize with the blogger and also with each other, sharing experiences they have had with a particular product or service. Kunz et al. Top 18 retailers and five of the social media sites were taken, the number of subscribers belonging to each retailer was monitored for a number of weeks; there was a significant change in sales during that period.
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It was discovered that consumers enjoyed the control that came along with social media and they enjoy being part of the community than the target of an organization. Based upon the usage rate and statistics, retailers are quickly incorporating the use of social networking sites into their marketing communication strategy. Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion The objectives of this study was to determine if social media marketing affected organizational brand, if it influenced consumer behavior, if it could be used as a competitive tool and also if it can increase organization efficiency.
These hypotheses were tested and three out of four tested positive. It shows social media marketing is effective even if it is relatively new to the marketing world, it is just as useful and effective if not more than other traditional forms of marketing. Managers have to understand that there has been a shift of power from the producers to the consumers; social media provides a platform for consumers to speak their thoughts regarding a new ad, product or even service. Organizations have to take advantage of the two way communication to respond and communicate with consumers to find out how a particular brand is perceived or if they are enjoying the use of a product taking full advantage to electronic word of mouth.
The researcher concluded by stating that the business world is developing rapidly and that with the constant communication that has been made available marketers have been given the chance to handpick potential consumers and at the same time getting the loyalty from present consumers. Marketers have also been given the opportunity to better understand their consumers directly from the thoughts and views expressed by them; if marketers can fully understand the way to manipulate the use of social media then the power could be taken back from the consumers.
Recommendation Based on the findings established during the course of this study, the following is recommended to managers of various organizations. Some products are better advertised through demonstration which can be done through videos placed on YouTube.